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Methodologies
Behind Our Datasets




Sustainable1 Methodologies

S&P Global is committed to providing transparency around the methodology underpinning our datasets and products.  Please see below for available methodology documentation, noting that as our methodologies are developed and evolve, this list will also expand and evolve.

  • ESG Scores and Data
  • Climate and Environmental
  • Regulatory Alignment

S&P Global ESG Scores

The S&P Global ESG Score measures a company’s performance on and management of material ESG risks, opportunities, and impacts compared to their peers within the same industry classification, informed by a combination of company disclosures, media and stakeholder analysis, modeling approaches, and in-depth company engagement via the S&P Global Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA). The S&P Global ESG Score uses a double materiality approach whereby a sustainability issue is considered to be material if it presents a significant impact on society or the environment and a significant impact on a company’s value drivers, competitive position, and long-term shareholder value creation.

Full methodology available here

Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA)

The S&P Global Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA) is an annual evaluation of companies’ sustainability practices, with 62 industry-specific assessments covering over 10,000 companies from around the world. The CSA focuses on sustainability criteria that are both industry-specific and financially material, and the results form a key component of the ESG Global Score.

Methodology resources available include annual updates, question weights, the CSA Handbook and an FAQ document.

CSA RESOURCES AVAILABLE HERE

Media & Stakeholder Analysis

The S&P Global Media and Stakeholder Analysis (‘MSA’) forms an integral part of the S&P Global Corporate Sustainability Assessment (‘CSA’) and enables S&P Global to monitor companies’ sustainability performance on an ongoing basis by assessing current controversies with potentially negative reputational or financial impacts. The main objective of the MSA process is to gain insight into a company’s ability to mitigate financially material and reputational risks, as well as impacts on stakeholders and the environment, whilst protecting their shareholder value.

Full methodology available here

Physical Risk

The Physical Risk analysis framework includes robust and science-based climate change physical hazard characterization methodology, leveraging the latest available climate change models (CMIP6) and proprietary methodologies. It covers eight key climate change physical hazards at consistent resolution, globally: coastal flood, fluvial flood, extreme heat, extreme cold, tropical cyclone, wildfire, water stress and drought, and four climate change scenarios based on the IPCC Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) and Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios.

Full methodology available here

Nature & Biodiversity Risk

The Nature Risk methodology is a methodology for profiling nature-related risks associated with location-specific business activities, and draws heavily on the principles outlined by the Taskforce on Nature-related Financial Disclosures (TNFD) in its Beta framework. The methodology rests on two core building blocks for profiling nature-related risks: dependencies on nature and impacts on nature. These are broken down into components that help to profile nature-related risks that can be assessed using company data and global nature-related datasets.

Full methodology available here

Business Involvement Screens

S&P Global Business Involvement Screens (‘Screens’) measure companies’ direct and indirect exposures to specific products and services, quantified as percentages of total company revenue and total company ownership. S&P Global offers Screens covering thirty-two products and services that fall into four broad categories. For each of the Screens, S&P Global provides definitions of the product or service, analyst descriptions of company exposure, the method used to calculate revenue, revenue ranges, actual revenue numbers and data source documentation where available.

Full methodology available here

S&P Global SFDR Sustainable Investment Framework

The S&P Global Sustainable Finance Disclosures Regulation (SFDR) Sustainable Investment Framework dataset is a comprehensive dataset designed to help financial market participants comply with the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID II) and the Sustainable Finance Disclosure Regulation (SFDR). It provides a detailed assessment of publicly listed companies determining their sustainability as per the SFDR definition of Sustainable Investment.

Full methodology available here

EU Taxonomy As Reported Dataset

The EU Taxonomy (’EUT’) As Reported Dataset collects EUT performance data as it is reported by companies, rather than using estimates, with the aim of providing the required intelligence to FMPs to meet their regulatory requirements. The data on EUT eligibility and alignment is captured for a company at both activity, product and aggregated company level, from a range of public disclosures including annual reports, sustainability reports, integrated reports, and websites. The raw reported data is standardized via a set of transparent rules, with examples of standardization including harmonization of currencies and monetary units, and removal of symbols. The EUT data collected for NFCs and FMPs is presented in separate tables given the differences in the European Commission’s disclosure template and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), and via a data structure closely aligned with the disclosure template recommended by the European Commission.

Full methodology available here


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Put 20+ years of experience behind your sustainability strategy, getting ahead of disclosure trends with active corporate engagement and granular data modelling, and delivering enhanced solutions recognized by numerous industry awards.

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