IN THIS LIST

Considering the Risk From Future Carbon Prices: The S&P Carbon Price Risk Adjusted Index Series

Value: A Practitioner's Guide

Factor Strategies in Brazil: A Practitioner's Guide

TalkingPoints: Introducing the S&P/ASX Small Ordinaries Select Index

How Index Innovation Is Propelling Further Growth of Islamic Markets

Considering the Risk From Future Carbon Prices: The S&P Carbon Price Risk Adjusted Index Series

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Andrew Innes

Head of EMEA, Global Research & Design

INTRODUCTION

Along with the advent of the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement has come a growing understanding of the structural changes required across the global economy to shift to low- (or zero-) carbon, sustainable business practices.

The increasing regulation of carbon emissions through taxes, emissions trading schemes, and fossil fuel extraction fees is expected to feature prominently in global efforts to address climate change.  Carbon prices are already implemented in 40 countries and 20 cities and regions.  Average carbon prices could increase more than sevenfold to USD 120 per metric ton by 2030, as regulations aim to limit the average global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius, in accordance with the Paris Agreement.[1]

S&P Dow Jones Indices launched the S&P Carbon Price Risk Adjusted Indices to embed future carbon price risk into today’s index constituents.

The key points included in the index concept are as follows: 

  • Carbon pricing risk from a growing array of new policies and taxes leading to potentially significant increased costs for companies.
  • Every company having a different carbon emissions profile—its total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions footprint and where geographically these emissions occur.
  • Carbon pricing risk could vary substantially among companies operating in the same business sector.

This development is an example of the broader move toward incorporating environmental, social, and governance (ESG) considerations in asset management.

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Value: A Practitioner's Guide

WHAT IS VALUE?

The foundational lessons of Graham and Dodd provide a recipe for market participants to look at stocks based on a valuation framework and to understand the relative cheapness of stocks. This framework has been used throughout the years, and many have adapted or adjusted it to meet their investment styles or views.

At the most basic level, the goal of investing in value stocks is to buy stocks that are trading at a discount relative to their peers (based on company financials) but have upside potential. How someone measures the relative “cheapness” and determines how much of a portfolio to put in a “cheap” stock are key items to consider when looking at value.

Using company financial metrics, the S&P Enhanced Value Indices seek to measure stocks with attractive valuations based on three key fundamentals.

  1. Price-to-Earnings Ratio: Calculated as a company’s trailing 12-month earnings per share divided by its share price. A key metric used for company valuation, we use this ratio to identify companies with earnings that may not be reflected in their share price when compared with other companies.

  2. Price-to-Book Value Ratio: Calculated as a company’s latest book value per share divided by its share price. This metric is key in understanding what proportion of a company’s assets are priced into the shares of a company.

  3. Price-to-Sales Ratio: Calculated as a company’s trailing 12-month sales per share divided by its share price. This metric is used to identify companies that might not have consistent earnings but still maintain robust sales growth relative to their share price appreciation. These three ratios were selected to identify the stocks that could have the most potential upside value relative to their share price. For each stock in the underlying index and for each metric, a risk-adjusted z-score is calculated and a simple average of these three z-scores is taken.

These three ratios were selected to identify the stocks thatcould have the most potential upside value relative to their share price. For each stock in the underlying index and for each metric, a risk-adjusted z-score is calculated and a simple average ofthese three z-scores is taken.

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Factor Strategies in Brazil: A Practitioner's Guide

WHAT ARE FACTOR INDICES?

Capturing market idiosyncrasies and desired risk/return characteristics has been a fundamental component in the active management space for decades. Taking the fundamental ideology behind an investment strategy and democratizing them within an index allows for these rules-based portfolios to provide at minimum a gauge for relative performance and at best the ability to systematically capture alpha.

When looking at factor strategies in Brazil, we will be focusing on four different strategies.

Enhanced Value: At the most basic level, the goal of investing in value stocks is to buy stocks that are “cheap” or trading at a discount relative to their peers based on company fundamentals.

Momentum:The goal of momentum investing is to capture the stocks that have had the highest price appreciation relative to their peers with the expectation that they will further outperform in a rising market.

Quality: Investing in companies that have quality characteristics seeks to capture stocks that have fundamentals that exemplify a well-run company relative to their peers.

Low Volatility/Inverse-Risk Weighted: Low volatility or inverse-risk weighted strategies allow for participation in the market even during turbulent or volatile times. Each strategy has its own risk/return characteristics that we will discuss throughout this paper.

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TalkingPoints: Introducing the S&P/ASX Small Ordinaries Select Index

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Michael Orzano

Senior Director, Global Equity Indices

Could incorporating earnings quality and liquidity improve risk/return in Australian small-cap equities?

  1. Why is the S&P/ASX Small Ordinaries Select being introduced now?

Prior research has demonstrated that profitability matters for small-cap companies in the U.S.1 For example, the S&P SmallCap 600®which includes earnings eligibility criteria—has outperformed the broader Russell 2000 Index (with lower volatility) for more than 20 years. Our new S&P/ASX Small Ordinaries Select Index extends this phenomenon to Australian equity markets where we have found that a similar effect exists. Simply put, small-cap companies without a track record of generating earnings have performed poorly relative to their profitable peers and have thus been a drag on broad small-cap indices.

How does the S&P/ASX Small Ordinaries Select Index work?

The index is a part of the S&P Global SmallCap Select Index Series. In order to be eligible for index inclusion, companies must post two consecutive years of positive earnings per share. As a buffer, companies are dropped from the index after posting two consecutive years of negative earnings. The index is weighted by float market cap and is rebalanced semiannually in March and September.

  1. What additional indices are offered within the S&P Global    SmallCap Select Index Series?

The S&P/ASX Small Ordinaries Select Index follows the same index methodology framework utilized in our S&P Global SmallCap Select Index Series. We currently  offer the following regional indices within the S&P Global SmallCap Select Series (see below).

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How Index Innovation Is Propelling Further Growth of Islamic Markets

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John Welling

Director, Equity Indices

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Michael Orzano

Senior Director, Global Equity Indices

THE RANGE OF SHARIAH-COMPLIANT INDICES HAS GROWN TO MEET THE EVOLVING NEEDS OF THE ISLAMIC FINANCE INDUSTRY  

Since the introduction of the Dow Jones Islamic Market (DJIM) World Index nearly 20 years ago, there has been a tremendous amount of index innovation as the Islamic investment community has demanded increasingly granular and sophisticated investment solutions while adhering to the tenets of Islamic law. Today, S&P Dow Jones Indices publishes more than 10,000 Shariah-compliant indices each day.  In the early years, we brought to market broad benchmarks covering various regions, as well as large-cap indices focused on prominent blue-chip companies. Soon thereafter, Shariah-compliant versions of popular benchmarks such as the S&P 500® Shariah were introduced.  In the past few years, Shariahcompliant index development has expanded to include smart beta and multi-asset class strategies.

DIVIDEND STRATEGIES

Dividend indices have long been popular with conventional investors due to their income properties and indication of long-term value.  The S&P High Yield Dividend Aristocrats® was launched for conventional investors in 2005, and its success has led to the subsequent launch of its Shariah counterpart—the S&P High Yield Dividend Aristocrats Shariah Index.  The index is formed by screening companies within the S&P Composite 1500® for Shariah compliance, followed by the further selection of companies that have consistently increased their dividends over the past 20 consecutive years.  The result is a modern dividend capture index available for use by Shariah-conscious market participants.  Exhibit 1 highlights the favorable risk and return characteristics of the S&P High Yield Dividend Aristocrats Shariah Index compared with the conventional S&P High Yield Dividend Aristocrats and the S&P 500 over the past 10 years. 

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